Invotech Precision Engineers
1800 200 5815 (Toll Free)
 

Non Destructive Testing (NDT)


VISUAL INSPECTION (VT)

MAGNETIC PARTICLE INSPECTION (MT)

LIQUID PENETRANT INSPECTION (PT)

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)

VISUAL INSPECTION (VT)

  This method involves both direct and indirect visual inspection techniques, direct inspection is where the material is inspected directly by the human eye with no additional visual aids, indirect inspection may involve the use of magnifying glass, mirror, boroscope (mini camera), closed-circuit TV etc. Visual inspection is a crucial NDT method which is too often overlooked, this should be the basis for inspectors starting out in the NDT industry, for example, a visual examination of an operational plant can often reveal obvious problem areas, such as leaks, excess vibration, corrosion or misalignment, this inspection is a very cost effective exercise and can be used to identify areas that require further NDT applications. PCN & SNT-TC-1A minimum work experience and training hour's requirements for VT examinations.
Level 1
• 16 hours Training (PCN), 8 hours (SNT-TA-1A)
• 1 month Work Experience (PCN), 70 hours in method & 130 hours in NDT.
Level 2
• 24 hours Training (PCN), 16 hours Training (SNT-TC-1A) (additional to the hours for Level 1)
• 3 months Work Experience (PCN), 140 hours in method & 270 hours in NDT (SNT-TC-1A)
(Additional to the 1 month for Level 1) If a candidate wishes to go direct to Level 2 without first taking the Level 1 route, the minimum requirements are the total accumulative requirements of both Level 1 and 2.
We can provide Visual Testing training courses and examinations suitable for any of the following certification scheme.
SNT-TC-1A in accordance with your/our company written practice

We can also provide
• Preparation training for ASNT Level 3
An example of the syllabus that is used for visual inspection training courses is shown below for Level 1 and 2. Decibel can tailor make the syllabus to satisfy the requirements of an individual’s company specific written practice if requested.

Level 1
General Theory
Specific Theory
Practical Examination
Safety Precautions Basic Principles of Magnetic Particle Inspection Methods of Magnetization Inspection and Detection of Indications Checks and Calibrations Equipment Test Procedures Detectability of Defects Standards and Specifications Application of the Method and use of Codes, Specifications and Procedures, applicable to the company, including the relevant control checks. Follow written instructions and process the inspection test pieces, record and report defects from know datum markers, carry out pre test calibration checks, post test procedures.


Level 2
General Theory
Specific Theory
Practical Examination
(in addition to the Level 1 Syllabus above) Safety Precautions Testing Procedures Detectability of Defects Interpretation and Reporting Post Test Procedures Calculations Selection of Appropriate Techniques Application of the method to the specific requirements of the company, in particular making reference to those Codes, Specifications and Procedures used by the company, including the relevant control checks. Product technology of the products for the relevant sector, i.e. welds, castings, forgings, this includes, manufacturing processes, defect formation and detection. Production of written instruction, determine the best inspection techniques for the individual parts, process the inspection test pieces, record and report defects from know Datum markers, carry out pre test calibration checks, post test procedures.


About Qualification
Level 1 General Qualification required for separate certification:
10th Grade, SSLC, +2, HSC, Diploma – above or equivalent.
Level 2 Direct - General Qualification required for separate certification:
Level 1 With 6 month’s industrial experience or Science Graduation, Engineering Graduation.

LIQUID PENETRANT INSPECTION (PT) This involves applying a liquid dye to the surface of a material and leaving the dye to “dwell” on the surface for a predetermined period of time. The liquid can be either a color that is easily visible under normal lighting conditions or a yellow/green fluorescent colour that requires special lighting conditions to be seen effectively.
This liquid dye enters into discontinuities that are open to the surface of the material through a phenomenon called “capillary action”. This capillary action takes place throughout the dwell time and the discontinuity retains this dye when the excess dye is cleaned from the surface. A type of developer is then This involves applying a liquid dye to the surface of a material and leaving the dye to “dwell” on the surface for a predetermined period of time. The liquid can be either a color that is easily visible under normal lighting conditions or a yellow/green fluorescent color that requires special lighting conditions to be seen effectively. This liquid dye enters into discontinuities that are open to the surface of the material through a phenomenon called “capillary action”. This capillary action takes place throughout the dwell time and the discontinuity retains this dye when the excess dye is cleaned from the surface. A type of developer is then The PT method is suitable on most non absorbent materials We can provide Liquid Penetrant Inspection courses and examinations suitable for any of the following certification scheme.
• SNT-TC-1A in accordance with your/our company written practice
We can also Provide :
• Preparation training for ASNT Level 3
An example of the syllabus that is used for Liquid Penetrant training courses is shown below for Level 1 and 2. DECIBEL can tailor make the syllabus to satisfy the requirements of an individual’s company specific written practice if requested.

Level 1
General Theory
Specific Theory
Practical Examination
Basic Principles of Liquid Penetrant Inspection Safety Precautions Surface Preparation of Materials for Inspection Materials and Equipment used Assessment and Implementation of Control Tests Suitable Testing Technique Post Test Procedures Application of the Method and use of Codes, Specifications and Procedures, applicable to the company, including the relevant control checks. Follow written instructions and process the inspection test pieces, record and report defects from know datum markers, carry out pre test calibration checks, post test procedures.


Level 2
General Theory
Specific Theory
Practical Examination
(in addition to the Level 1 Syllabus above) Safety Precautions Testing Procedures Detectability of Defects Interpretation and Reporting Post Test Procedures Calculations Selection of Appropriate Techniques Application of the Method to the Specific requirements of the company, in particular making reference to those Codes, Specifications and Procedures Used by the company, including the relevant control checks. Product technology of the products for the relevant sector, i.e. welds, castings, forgings, this includes, manufacturing processes, defect formation and detection. Production of written instruction, determine the best inspection techniques for the individual parts, process the inspection test pieces, record and report defects from know Datum markers, carry out pre test calibration checks, post test procedures.


About Qualification

Level 1 General Qualification required for separate certification:
10th Grade, SSLC, +2, HSC, Diploma – above or equivalent.

Level 2 Direct - General Qualification required for separate certification:
Level 1 With 6 month’s industrial experience or Science Graduation, Engineering Graduation.

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)
This method is based on the same principle as medical radiography in a hospital. A piece of radiographic film is placed on the remote side of the material under inspection and radiation is then transmitted through from one side of the material to the remote side where the radiographic film is placed.
The radiographic film detects the radiation and measures the various quantities of radiation received over the entire surface of the film. This film is then processed under dark room conditions and the various degrees of radiation received by the film are imaged by the display of different degrees of black and white, this is termed the film density and is viewed on a special light emitting device.
Discontinuities in the material affect the amount of radiation being received by the film through that particular plane of the material. Qualified inspectors can interpret the resultant images and record the location and type of effect present in the material. Radiography can be used on most materials and product forms, e.g. welds, castings, composites etc.
Radiographic testing provides a permanent record in the form of a radiograph and provides a highly sensitive image of the internal structure of the material. Radiography is split into two main categories.
• Radiographic Testing • Radiographic Interpretation
The radiographic testing course is for NDT personnel who execute the practical inspection using radioactive material or radiation emitting devices. The radiographic interpretation course is designed purely for the interpretation of the resultant radiographic image. However, to understand the principles of image formation, sensitivity and correct techniques the general theory syllabus is the same for both courses.
The two sectors of the Radiographic Testing examination that are NOT required for the Radiographic Interpretation examination are • Basic Radiation Safety (BRS)
• Practical Examination of the Specimens
PCN & SNT-TC-1A minimum work experience and training hours' requirements for RT examinations

Level 1
• 40 hours Training (PCN) & SNT-TC-1A
• 3 months Work Experience (PCN), 210 hours experience in method & 400 hours in NDT

Level 2
• 80 hours (PCN), 40 hours (SNT-TC-1A) Training (additional to the 40 hours for Level 1)
• 9 months Work Experience( (additional to the 3 months for Level 1)( PCN), 630 hours work experience in method & 1200 hours experience in NDT (SNT-TC-1A)
If a candidate wishes to go direct to Level 2 without first taking the Level 1 route, the minimum requirements are the total accumulative requirements of both Level 1 and 2.
We can provide Radiographic Testing and Interpretation training courses and examinations suitable for any of the following certification scheme.
• SNT-TC-1A in accordance with your/our company written practice
We can also provide • Preparation training for ASNT Level 3
An example of the syllabus that is used for Radiographic training courses is shown below for Level 1 and 2. DECIBEL can tailor make the syllabus to satisfy the requirements of an individual’s company specific written practice if requested.

Radiographic Testing
Radiographic Testing is split into specific product sectors for certification at Level 1 and 2, this is
• Welds
• Castings
Each of these categories is further split into sub groups
• Light Metal X-ray
• Dense Metal X-ray (and/or Gamma ray)
• Light and Dense Metal, both X-ray and Gamma ray



Level 1
General Theory
Specific Theory
Practical Examination
Properties and Production of X-ray and Gamma ray The Formation of a Latent Image Radiographic Film Development / Processing Practical Exercises Radiographic Quality Image Quality Radiographic Techniques Density Monitoring Application of the Method and use of Codes, Specifications and Procedures, applicable to the company, including the relevant control checks. Follow written instructions and process the inspection test pieces, record and report defects from know datum markers, carry out pre test calibration checks, post test procedures.


Level 2
General Theory
Specific Theory
Practical Examination
(in addition to the Level 1 Syllabus above) The properties of X-ray and Gamma rays Personnel Protection and Safety Procedures Atomic Structures Generation of X-rays Natural and Artificial Gamma Radiation Sources Gamma ray Equipment Radiographic Film Intensifying Screens Exposure Charts Characteristic Curves Diagnostic Film Lengths Exposure Calculations Techniques for Weld Radiography Darkroom Procedures Radiographic Quality Introduction to the Interpretation of Radiographs Specifications and Procedures Application of the Method to the Specific requirements of the company, in particular making reference to those Codes, Specifications and Procedures Used by the company, including the relevant control checks. Product technology of the products for the relevant sector, i.e. welds, castings, forgings, this includes, manufacturing processes, defect formation and detection. Production of written instruction, determine the best inspection techniques for the individual parts, process the inspection test pieces, record and report defects from know Datum markers, carry out pre test calibration checks, post test procedures.


About Qualification

Level 1 General Qualification required for separate certification:
10th Grade, SSLC, +2, HSC, Diploma – above or equivalent.

Level 2 Direct - General Qualification required for separate certification:
Level 1 With 6 month’s industrial experience or Science Graduation, Engineering Graduation.

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)
This method employs high frequency sound pulses that are emitted from a transducer; this sound wave is induced in to the material through a probe which is usually in contact with the material. These sound waves propagate through the material, and are reflected back to the probe when they reach an interface. The reflected waves are transmitted back through the probe and connecting leads to a detector which can be either analogue or digital. The sounds waves are then displayed as a series of signals on a monitor and the qualified inspector can measure, and interpret these signals to allow accurate evaluation of the internal structure of the material. Ultrasonic testing can not only be used to indicate a surface or subsurface flaw it can also be used to determine the depth, size and type of flaw. Another advantage of using UT is the accurate measurement of the thickness of the material. The method can be applied to most materials providing the material can transmit sound waves. UT is considered to be a fast and effective way of inspection providing high sensitive results. PCN & SNT-TC-1A minimum work experience and training hour's requirements for UT examinations

Level 1
• 40 hours Training (PCN) & SNT-TC-1A
• 3 months Work Experience (PCN), 210 hours work experience in method and 400 hours work experience in NDT(SNT-TC-1A)

Level 2
• 80 hours Training (additional to the 40 hours for Level 1) (PCN), 40 hours Training (additional to the 40 hours for Level 1) (SNT-TC-1A)
• 3 months Work Experience (additional to the 3 month for Level 1) (PCN), 630 hours work experience in method and 1200 hours work experience in NDT (additional to the Level requirements) (SNT-TC-1A)
If a candidate wishes to go direct to Level 2 without first taking the Level 1route, the minimum requirements are the total accumulative requirements of both Level 1 and 2.
We can provide Ultrasonic training courses and examinations suitable for any of the following certification scheme.
• • SNT-TC-1A in accordance with your/our company written practice We can also provide
• Preparation training for ASNT Level 3
An example of the syllabus that is used for ultrasonic examination training courses is shown below for level 1 and 2. DECIBEL can tailor make the syllabus to satisfy the requirements of an individual’s company specific written practice if requested.
In the PCN certification scheme Ultrasonic Testing is separated into three specific product sectors for certification purposes, these are
Radiographic Testing is split into specific product sectors for certification at Level 1 and 2, this is
• Welds
• Wrought Products (Forgings)
• Castings The welds sector is further sub divided into groups, these are
• Plate Butt Welds
• Pipe Butt Welds
• Constructional "T" Joint
• Nozzles
• Nodes



Level 1
General Theory
Specific Theory
Practical Examination
Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Equipment Testing Techniques Calibration of Testing Systems Detectability of Defects Factors Affecting the Performance of the Ultrasonic Test Codes of Practice and Standards Conducting and Recording the Test Follow written instructions and process the inspection test pieces, record and report defects from know datum markers, carry out pre test calibration checks, post test procedures.


Level 2
General Theory
Specific Theory
Practical Examination
(in addition to the Level 1 Syllabus above) Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Equipment Testing Techniques Calibration of Testing Systems Principles of Ultrasonic Detectability of Defects Factors Affecting the Performance of the Ultrasonic Test Codes of Practice and Standards Conducting and Recording the Test Interpretation of Test Results Product Technology Theory Production of written instruction, determine the best inspection techniques for the individual parts, process the inspection test pieces, record and report defects from know Datum markers, carry out pre test calibration checks, post test procedures.


About Qualification

Level 1 General Qualification required for separate certification:
10th Grade, SSLC, +2, HSC, Diploma – above or equivalent.

Level 2 Direct - General Qualification required for separate certification:
Level 1 With 6 month’s industrial experience or Science Graduation, Engineering Graduation.